Types of Heart Disease

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Types of Heart Disease

Heart disease is a broad category of conditions affecting the heart and its proper functioning. It is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The different types of heart disease include congenital heart disease, cardiac disease, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, heart failure, and heart valve disease. Each type has its distinct characteristics, causes, and treatment approaches.

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  • Congenital Heart Disease
    Congenital Heart Disease is a heart disease present at birth. It involves structural abnormalities of the heart or the blood vessels near the heart. These abnormalities can affect the heart’s ability to pump blood efficiently. Congenital heart disease can range from mild, requiring little or no treatment, to severe, necessitating surgical intervention. Genetic factors or environmental factors often cause it during pregnancy.

  • Cardiac Disease
    Cardiac Disease is a term used to describe a wide range of conditions that adversely impact heart health, including congenital heart disease, coronary artery disease, arrhythmias, and heart valve disease. This term refers to any condition that affects the overall functioning of the heart

  • Coronary Artery Disease
    Coronary Artery Disease is a type of heart disease that occurs when the artery that supplies blood to the heart becomes narrow or blocked due to plaque buildup. Plaque is a sticky substance comprising cholesterol, calcium, and other substances. When the coronary arteries narrow, the heart does not receive enough oxygen and nutrients, leading to chest pain (angina) or heart attack. Risk factors for coronary artery disease involves high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a sedentary lifestyle.

Types of Heart Disease 2
  • Arrhythmias
    Arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that occur due to various reasons. They can be characterized by the heart beating too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly. Coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, congenital heart defects, certain medications, and other factors can cause arrhythmias. Some arrhythmias are harmless and do not require treatment. In contrast, others can be life-threatening and require medical intervention, such as medications, electrical cardioversion, or a pacemaker or defibrillator implantation.

  • Heart Failure
    Heart Failure, known as congestive heart failure, is when the heart cannot pump blood efficiently to meet the body’s needs. It can be caused by other conditions such as coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, heart valve disease, or previous heart attacks. Heart failure can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, swelling in the legs and ankles, and fluid retention. Treatment approaches for heart failure may include lifestyle changes, medications, and, in severe cases, surgical interventions like heart transplantation.

  • Heart Valve Disease
    Heart Valve Disease occurs when heart valves malfunction. The heart valves are responsible for ensuring the proper flow of blood through the heart’s chambers. When valves are diseased or damaged, they may not open or close properly, leading to valve stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leaking). Heart valve disease can also be congenital or acquired. Common symptoms include chest pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, and irregular heartbeat. Treatment options range from medication management to surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve.

Frequently Asked Questions

What are the different types of heart disease?

The different types of heart disease include coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmia, heart valve disease, congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathy.

What is coronary artery disease?

Coronary artery disease is a condition in which the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the build-up of plaque.

What are the risk factors for heart disease?

The risk factors for heart disease include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, family history of heart disease, and age.

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Disclaimer: The information presented by Boston Scientific Corporation is for educational purposes only and does not recommend self-management of health issues. The information should not be treated as comprehensive and does not intend to provide diagnosis, treatment or any medical advice. Individual results may vary and hence, it is advisable to consult your doctor regarding any medical or health related diagnosis or treatment options.